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What Led to the Munich Agreement

London, FridayThe Munich Accords give Hitler everything he wants (at first), except that they may not allow him to get it as quickly as he would have done under Godesberg`s uncircumcised ultimatum. He will begin tomorrow the invasion of Czechoslovakia, as he threatened in his speech of 12 September. It is free to occupy all regions where Sudeten Germans are in the majority, and to do so in rapid stages. When Germany, France, Britain and Italy signed the Munich Accords in the early morning of September 30, 1938, the Nazis took control of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland, where ethnic Germans lived mainly along the Czech borders. The treaty also allowed Germany to take control of Czechoslovakia, which it officially did on March 15, 1939. It should be noted that Czechoslovakia was not represented at the conference that decided the fate of that country. In retrospect, the deal is seen as a failed attempt to avoid war with Nazi Germany. Undoubtedly, radio equipment has had a great influence over the past two weeks, as the contrast between German school silence and the moderation of leaders of other countries, including Czechoslovakia in particular, has made a strong impression here in the United States and in all neutral countries. But when it comes to dictatorial countries, far less was known about the outside world than it was half a century ago. Because the machinery of oppression is now perfected, and when it is accustomed to its full power, little light can pierce.

Thus, great wars can be unleashed in the darkness of peoples who know nothing beyond what their leaders have told them. In this way, the common life of the world is negatively affected by the state of its different peoples, and the loss of freedom in each of them becomes a threat to peace. Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovak government, recognizing the desperation of the struggle against the Nazis alone, reluctantly capitulated (September 30) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany the Sudetenland from October 10 and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia, as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On the 30th. After a pause, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler`s interpreter translated it for him, he happily accepted.

Faced with high tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovak government, Beneš secretly offered on September 15, 1938 to give Germany 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) of Czechoslovakia in exchange for a German agreement to admit 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans, whom Czechoslovakia would expel. Hitler did not respond. [13] One aspect of the enormous turmoil of the past two weeks must affect anyone who thinks about its history. In the three most powerful states of Central and Eastern Europe, people were not allowed to know what was being said and done outside. In Russia, there seems to have been very little news. In Germany and Italy, news was deliberately falsified if it was not suppressed. The German people were not allowed to know President Roosevelt`s message. The Italian people were led to believe that Chamberlain agreed with Hitler and was only concerned with putting pressure on Benes. They were given a bad version of one of his speeches.

The American historian William L. Shirer, in his book The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960), argued that if Czechoslovakia did not bluff about its intention to invade, Czechoslovakia could have put up considerable resistance. Shirer believed that Britain and France had enough air defenses to avoid serious bombing of London and Paris, and that they could have waged a quick and successful war against Germany. [66] He quotes Churchill as saying that the deal means that „Britain and France were in a much worse position than Hitler`s Germany.” [61] After Hitler personally inspected the Czech fortifications, he privately told Joseph Goebbels that „we had shed a lot of blood” and that he was glad there was no fighting. [67] The agreement was generally welcomed. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, as one scholar put it, that a European war was justified „to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty.” But the same argument applies to Alsace-Lorraine – unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression. Gallup polls in Britain, France and the United States showed that the majority of people supported the deal. Czechoslovak President Beneš was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize in 1939. [52] After the National Socialists seized power in 1933, Germany demanded the „return” of the ethnic German population of Czechoslovakia – and the country in which they lived – to the German Reich. In the late summer of 1938, Hitler threatened to start a European war if the Sudetenland was not ceded to Germany. The Sudetenland was a border area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly German-speaking population as well as all defensive positions of the Czechoslovak army in case of war with Germany.

The leaders of Britain, France, Italy and Germany held a conference in Munich on September 29 and 30, 1938. In the so-called Munich Pact, they accepted the German annexation of the Sudetenland in exchange for Hitler`s promise of peace. On the 13th. In September, after internal outbreaks of violence and disruption in Czechoslovakia, Chamberlain asked Hitler for a face-to-face meeting to find a solution to avoid war. [29] Chamberlain arrived in Germany by plane on September 15, then arrived at Hitler`s residence in Berchtesgaden for the meeting. [30] Henlein flew to Germany on the same day. [29] On that day, Hitler and Chamberlain held discussions in which Hitler insisted that Sudeten Germans be allowed to exercise the right to national self-determination and join the Sudetenland with Germany. Hitler also expressed concern to Chamberlain about what he perceived as British „threats.” [30] Chamberlain replied that he had made no „threat” and asked Hitler in frustration, „Why did I come here to waste my time?” [30] Hitler replied that if Chamberlain was willing to accept the self-determination of the Sudeten Germans, he would be willing to discuss the matter.

[30] Chamberlain and Hitler discussed for three hours, and the session was adjourned. Chamberlain returned to the UK and met with his cabinet to discuss the issue. [30] When Chamberlain returned from Munich, he told an excited crowd at Heston Airport, „This is peace for our time,” waving the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler broke his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. In less than a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. The economic consequences of the Munich Agreement will be very harsh for Czechoslovakia. The loss of industries, railway heads, knots, etc.

can only lead to serious business losses and unemployment. There is also no doubt that Czechoslovakia will become an object of quasi-colonial exploitation for Germany. The slogan „About us, without us!” (Czech: O nás bez nás!) summarizes the feelings of the Czechoslovak people (now Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation needed] With the transition from the Sudetenland to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its defensible border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than real. Czechoslovakia also lost 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electrical energy and 3.5 million citizens to Germany as a result of unification. [61] Sudeten Germans celebrated what they saw as their liberation. The impending war, it seems, had been averted. The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the „cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking.

Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. Under the Munich Accords, the entire predominantly German territory in Czechoslovakia had to be handed over by 10 October. Poland and Hungary occupied other parts of the country and after a few months, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist and what remained of Slovakia became a German puppet state. The agreement that allowed the annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany was signed on September 29, 1938. [silent] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference in September 1938 ceded the German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement was concluded between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to participate in the conference. In March 1939, six months after the munich accords were signed, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. UCLA Film and Television Archive The New York Times headline on the Munich Accords read: „Hitler gets less than his Sudetenland demands,” reporting that a „cheerful crowd” greeted Daladier on his return to France and that Chamberlain was „savagely acclaimed” upon his return to Britain. [54] September 29-30, 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Accords, according to which Czechoslovakia must cede its border areas and defenses (the so-called Sudetenland region) to Nazi Germany.



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